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Notes on the Geography of Northern India: Lucknow Residency

The Residency, or the home of the British representative stationed in princely Lucknow, was destroyed in 1857 yet has lingered on as an important monument ever since, first to the intrepidity of the British under siege and since 1947 to the determination of India's freedom fighters.

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Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 1

The Baillie Guard Gate, built in 1814 by Resident John Baillie to enclose the 33-acre site. The first resident had come in 1775, when the capital of Oudh was shifted from Faizabad to Lucknow. The land belonged to the Nawab of Oudh, who built the buildings, owned them, and was expected to maintain them. That lasted until 1856, when the last nawab was deposed and the last British resident replaced by a Commissioner.

Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 2

"The Residency is the spot which all Englishmen will wish to visit first in Lucknow." So speaks colonial-era editions of Murray's Handbook for India. Its location may have been selected by Claude Martin, who had been, among other things, a land surveyor for the East India Company.

There are no known photos of the Residency before its destruction in 1857. Its restoration would therefore be a work of supposition. The Archaeological Survey's report for 1902/3 states in any case that restoration was not the Survey's goal: instead, its "idea has been to avoid all outward semblance of patching up a ruin."

Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 3

The monument in the previous photo carries this plaque. "Sacred to the Memory of Major General Sir John Inglis, I.C.S., Colonel, H. M's 32rd Regiment, who with a handful of devoted men defended the Residency of Lucknow for 87 days from 3rd July 1857 to 27th September against an overwhelming force of the enemy." Inglis survived.

Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 4

Inglis had a wife, and she's remembered here, too: "Also of Julia, his wife, daughter of 1st Baron Chelmsford, who shared with him the horrors of the siege. Born April 19th 1833, died at Beckenham, February 10th, 1994."

Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 5

The grandest building on the site was not the residency but the banqueting hall, which was built--also by a nawab--in the early 19th century.

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Another view.

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So things stand.

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The rear of the banqueting hall.

Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 9

A stucco fireplace missing its floor.

Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 10

A marble-inlaid fountain.

Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 11

The residency proper.

Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 12

A plaque marks the spot where Henry Lawrence, the commander, died. Inglis then took over.

Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 13

An obelisk sits nearby, erected by Lord Northbrook, a viceroy 20 years later.

Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 14

Sepoys, or Indian soldiers under European command, became trusted defenders of British power not only in India but across the Empire.

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The Residency cemetery has 2000 graves.

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Here, by far the best known: Lawrence's.

Northern India: Lucknow Residency picture 17

The famous epitaph.



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